I. Critical thinking, argumentation and debate.  (Reading: Unit I and Logical Fallacies)

       A. Critical thinking defined.

       B. Reasoning and Rationality.                       

       C. Argumentation and debate.

       D. The interaction of reasoning, logic and persuasion.

       E. Persuasion-based and Logic-based Argumentation.

       F. Strong and Weak Sense Critical Thinking & Four Rhetorical Styles.

       (ASSIGNMENT HANDOUT: Questionable Premise Assignment)

       G. Critical Thinking Method.

       H. Critical thinking values (including Paul's Seven Traits of Mind).

  II. Argumentative Burdens (Responsibilities) and key concepts.

      (Reading: Argumentative Burdens/Responsibilities, p.13-18)                     

       A. Burden of Proof.

       B. Presumption.

       C. Proposition.                                   

       D. Prima Facie Case.

       E. Burden of Refutation.                                               

       F. Burden of Rebuttal.

       G. Other Burdens/Responsibilities (on all sides of the argumentation).

    (HANDOUT: Logical Fallacies Summed Up)

    (HANDOUT: Tests of Evidence)

    (HANDOUT: Critically Thinking Voter Assignment)


     I. Analysis defined.

   (Reading:  Analysis, Propositions, and Definitions, p. 19-26)

   II. Problems of poor analysis.

        A. Problem of ill-defined positions.

        B. Problem of mistaken agreement/disagreement.

        C. Problem of mistaking relevant/irrelevant.

        D. Problem of missing critical issues.

        E. Problem of lack of “clash.”

  III. Propositions.

        A. Described.

        B. Traditional types.

        C. Guidelines for clarity and effectiveness.

        D. Hierarchies of propositions.

   IV. Definitions.

    V. Manipulative language.

   VI. Issues.

   (Reading: Analysis, Issues, and Outlining, p. 27-40)

        A. Issue as a question on which arguers can disagree.

        B. Perspectives on an issue.

        C. Discovery of issues -- stock issues as pre-determined critical issues.

        D. Clash.

  VII. Poor analysis of issues and manipulation.

        A. Argumentum ad Rem.

        B. Avoidance of relevant issues.

 VIII. Outlining as a tool for analysis


  (Reading: Evidence Types, Tests, and Discovery, p. 41-52)

     I. Evidence defined

        A. “Proof” and other synonyms

        B. “Reasoning” as inferential leap from evidence to claim

    II. Types of evidence

        A. Assumptions

        B. Fact/value Premise/opinion

        C. A hierarchy of evidence

   III. Tests of evidence

        A. For fact and opinion data

        B. For value premises

   IV. Research

        A. Procedure

        B. Sources

  (LINK: Source Citation)


  (Reading: Types, Tests, and Logical Fallacies, p. 53-70)

  (Handout: Logical Fallacies Assignment)

     I. Key definitions

        A. Reasoning

        B. Inference

        C. Argument

        D. Logic

    II. Primary standards for evaluation

        A. Material truth

        B. Validity

        C. Persuasiveness

   III. Our philosophy

        A. Reasoning as “heart” of argumentation

        B. Logic-based, traditional approach

   IV. Toulmin Model

        A. Serves as analytical device

        B. Uses of model

    V. Types of arguments

        A. Induction vs. deduction

        B. Specific types/ tests

   VI. Syllogism as model for testing validity of deductive reasoning

        A. Structure

        B. Types

        C. Tests

        D. Enthememes

  VII. Logical fallacies

UNIT FIVE: Debate Format

  (Reading: Principles, Formats, and Parliamentary Procedure, p. 71-79)

     I. Basic Considerations:  fairness, efficiency, and thoroughness

    II. Formatting issues

        A. Speaking order

        B. Speaking time

        C. Degree and type of structure

        D. Specialization of speeches

        E. Cross Examination

        F. Audience participation

  III. Sample debate formats

        A. Academic debate

        B. Mock trial

        C. Audience participation format

  IV.  Parliamentary Procedure