COURSE OUTLINE

UNIT ONE: PHILOSOPHY AND UNDERLYING CONCEPTS

   I. Critical thinking, argumentation and debate.

       A. Critical thinking defined.

       B. Reasoning and Rationality.                       

       C. Argumentation and debate.

       D. The interaction of reasoning, logic and persuasion.

       E. Persuasion-based and Logic-based Argumentation.

       F. Strong and Weak Sense Critical Thinking & Four Rhetorical Styles.

       G. Critical Thinking Method

       H. Critical thinking values.

  II. Argumentative Burdens (Responsibilities) and key concepts.                       

       A. Burden of Proof.

       B. Presumption.

       C. Proposition.                                   

       D. Prima Facie Case.

       E. Burden of Refutation.                                               

       F. Burden of Rebuttal.

       G. Other Burdens.

UNIT TWO: ANALYSIS

     I. Analysis defined.

   II. Problems of poor analysis.

        A. Problem of ill-defined positions.

        B. Problem of mistaken agreement/disagreement.

        C. Problem of mistaking relevant/irrelevant.

        D. Problem of missing critical issues.

        E. Problem of lack of “clash.”

  III. Propositions.

        A. Described.

        B. Traditional types.

        C. Guidelines for clarity and effectiveness.

        D. Hierarchies of propositions.

   IV. Definitions.

    V. Manipulative language.

   VI. Issues.

        A. Issue as a question on which arguers can disagree.

        B. Perspectives on an issue.

        C. Discovery of issues -- stock issues as pre-determined critical issues.

        D. Clash.

  VII. Poor analysis of issues and manipulation.

        A. Argumentum ad Rem.

        B. Avoidance of relevant issues.

 VIII. Outlining as a tool for analysis

UNIT THREE: EVIDENCE

     I. Evidence defined

        A. “Proof” and other synonyms

        B. “Reasoning” as inferential leap from evidence to claim

    II. Types of evidence

        A. Assumptions

        B. Fact/value Premise/opinion

        C. A hierarchy of evidence

   III. Tests of evidence

        A. For fact and opinion data

        B. For value premises

   IV. Research

        A. Procedure

        B. Sources

UNIT FOUR: REASONING

     I. Key definitions

        A. Reasoning

        B. Inference

        C. Argument

        D. Logic

    II. Primary standards for evaluation

        A. Material truth

        B. Validity

        C. Persuasiveness

   III. Our philosophy

        A. Reasoning as “heart” of argumentation

        B. Logic-based, traditional approach

   IV. Toulmin Model

        A. Serves as analytical device

        B. Uses of model

    V. Types of arguments

        A. Induction vs. deduction

        B. Specific types/ tests

   VI. Syllogism as model for testing validity of deductive reasoning

        A. Structure

        B. Types

        C. Tests

        D. Enthememes

  VII. Logical fallacies

UNIT FIVE: REFUTATION AND REBUTTAL

     I. Definitions (Review)

    II. Overall strategy

        A. Attacking and defending selectively

        B. Three strategies of attack

        C. Two strategies of defense

        D. Attacking and defending systematically  

  III. Methods of attack and defense

        A. Attack analysis

        B. Attack evidence

        C. Attack reasoning (including exposure of logical fallacies)

        D. “Special” methods